Iron Ore
facebook 
google plus
twitter 
instagram 

Iron Ore

Iron is a very important and strategic commodity and has an undeniable role in genesis, growth and development of modern advanced civilization. Indeed maybe there is no other material which could be compared to Iron effectivity in mankind's life. Abundance of Iron and its special characteristics marginalized the other minerals rapidly.

According to the available evidences, Iron was extracted in middle of second millennium B.C. by Far East people for first time. Usage of Iron widely extended in neighbors specially Iran so quickly. The oldest objects was found in Iran belong to Iron era (about 1200-1450 years B.C.), but due to few quantity, It seems, they were imported from other places by the spoils of war. After 1200 years B.C. Iron was produced in Iran widely and many different tools were made by Iron.

Iron Ore producer, Iran Iron Ore producer

According to the above mentioned, Iron Ore mining in Iran has a big history. Today Iran is one of the best exporters of Iron Ores in Middle East and has lots of large Iron mines such as Choghart, Chador Malu, Sangan, Bafgh and etc. It's MGT Mineral Company's honor to have a great trading relationship with most of Iron mines in Iran. MGT Mineral Company can do all necessary actions for Iron Ore exporting. 

 

What Is Iron Ore?

Iron Ores are rocks and minerals which economically contain metallic Iron. Iron oxides are the major component of Iron Ores. They have various colors from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. These are common Iron minerals:

  • Magnetite (Fe3O4, 72.4% Fe)
  • Hematite (Fe2O3, 69.9% Fe)
  • Goethite (FeO(OH), 62.9% Fe)
  • Limonite (FeO(OH).n(H2O))
  • Siderite (FeCO3, 48.2% Fe)

 

Iron Ore exporter, Iran Iron Ore exporter

Hematite and Magnetite are the most abundant and economic minerals of Iron. Iron Ore is the raw material used to make pig Iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel. Most of the mined Iron Ore is used in steel industry. Perhaps only Oil and Gold has more importance than Iron in global economy.

Physical Properties of Magnetite
Cleavage None
System Isometric
Color Greyish black, Iron black.
Diaphaneity (Transparency) 5.1-5.2 g/cm3
Fracture Irregular/Uneven
Tenacity Brittle
Habit Crystalline - Fine - Occurs as well formed fine sized crystals; Massive - Granular - Common texture observed in granite and other igneous rock; Massive - Uniformly indistinguishable crystals forming large masses.
Hardness (Mohs) 5½ - 6½
Luminescence Non fluorescent
Luster Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Streak Black
Magnetism Naturally strong
Geological Setting Common igneous accessory mineral. In sedimentary banded Iron formations.

Magnetite Occurrence

Magnetite occurs in many sedimentary rocks, and huge deposits have been found in banded Iron formations. In addition, this mineral (especially in the form of small grains) occurs in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks. Many igneous rocks contain magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains that precipitated together from magma. Magnetite is also produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization.

Magnetite is sometimes found in large quantities in beach sand. It is carried to the beach by the erosive action of rivers and is concentrated by waves and currents. Such mineral sands (also called Iron sands or black sands) are found in various places, including beaches in California and the west coast of New Zealand. In June 2005, an exploration company (Candero Resources) discovered a vast deposit of magnetite-bearing sand dunes in Peru, where the highest dune is more than 2,000 meters (m) above the desert floor. The dune field covers 250 square kilometers (km²), and ten percent of the sand is magnetite.

Physical Properties of Hematite
Cleavage None
System Trigonal
Color Reddish gray, Black, Blackish red.
Density 5.3 g/cm3
Diaphaneity (Transparency) Sub-translucent to opaque
Fracture Conchoidal - Fractures developed in brittle materials characterized by smoothly curving surfaces, (e.g. quartz).
Tenacity Brittle
Habit Crystalline - Fine - Occurs as well formed fine sized crystals; Massive - Granular - Common texture observed in granite and other igneous rock; Massive - Uniformly indistinguishable crystals forming large masses.
Hardness (Mohs) 5-6
Luminescence Non fluorescent
Luster Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Streak reddish brown
Magnetism Magnetic after heating
Geological Setting Large ore bodies of Hematite are usually of sedimentary origin; also found in high-grade ore bodies in metamorphic rocks due to contact metasomatism, and occasionally as a sublimate on igneous extrusive rocks ("lavas") as a result volcanic activity. It is also found coloring soils red all over the planet...

 

 

Hematite, Iran Iron Ore

 Occurrence

Hematite is found as a primary mineral and as an alteration product in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. It can crystallize during the differentiation of a magma or precipitate from hydrothermal fluids moving through a rock mass. It can also form during contact metamorphism when hot magmas react with adjacent rocks. 

The most important hematite deposits formed in sedimentary environments. About 2.4 billion years ago, Earth’s oceans were rich in dissolved iron, but very little free oxygen was present in the water. Then a group of cyanobacteria became capable of photosynthesis. The bacteria used sunlight as an energy source to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates, oxygen, and water. This reaction released the first free oxygen into the ocean environment. The new oxygen immediately combined with the Iron to form hematite, which sank to the bottom of the seafloor and became the rock units that we know today as the banded Iron formations. 

Soon, photosynthesis was occurring in many parts of Earth’s oceans, and extensive hematite deposits were accumulating on the seafloor. This deposition continued for hundreds of millions of years - from about 2.4 to 1.8 million years ago. This allowed the formation of Iron deposits hundreds to several thousand feet thick that are laterally persistent over hundreds to thousands of square miles. They comprise some of the largest rock formations in Earth’s rock record. 

Many of the sedimentary Iron deposits contain both hematite and magnetite as well as other Iron minerals. These are often in intimate association, and the ore is mined, crushed, and processed to recover both minerals. Historically, much of the hematite was not recovered and was sent to tailings piles. More efficient processing today allows more hematite to be recovered from the ore. The tailings can also be reprocessed to recover additional Iron and reduce tailings volume.

Economic Classification

  • High-grade Iron Ore generally has a cut-off grade of >60% Fe. Historically it has provided a direct feed to smelters either as a raw lump or fines, also in a processed form such as sinter or pellets.
  • Medium-grade Iron Ore is using to describe Iron Ores which has a cut-off grade between 40-60 percent of Fe.
  • Low-grade Iron Ore is a term applied to iron-rich rocks with cut-off grade in the range of 25-30% Fe. It was the main supply of iron ore for many centuries of the World's early history of production of iron. Since the 1950s North America's main supply has been low-grade ore.

Iron Ore Usages:

  • Iron ore is usually smelted to produce pig Iron (metallic Iron), which is used to make steel. It is for this reason Iron is perhaps one of the most important metals used in developed and developing economies. There is also wrought Iron (low in carbon) and cast Iron (otherwise known as pig Iron), and corrugated Iron structural sheeting, a recognizable material in the buildings throughout the Australian outback. The pure Iron metal is strongly magnetic, melts at 1528°C. Magnetite ore is used to remove impurities in Coal washing, and its magnetic qualities enable recovery and reuse.

  • Although Iron in cast form has many specific uses (e.g. pipes, fittings, engine blocks) its main use is to make steel. Steel is the most useful metal known being used 20 times more than all other metals put together. Steel is strong, durable and extremely versatile. The many different kinds of steel consist almost entirely of Iron with the addition of small amounts of carbon (usually less than 1%) and of other metals to form different alloys (e.g. stainless steel). Pure Iron is quite soft, but adding a small amount of carbon makes it significantly harder and stronger. Most of the additional elements in steel are added deliberately in the steelmaking process (e.g. chromium, manganese, nickel, Molybdenum). By changing the proportions of these additional elements, it is possible to make steels suitable for a great variety of uses.

  • Steel's desirable properties, and its relatively low cost, make it the main structural metal in engineering and building projects, accounting for about 90% of all metal used each year. About 60% of Iron and steel products are used in transportation and construction, 20% in machinery manufacture, and most of the remainder in cans and containers, in the oil and gas industries, and in various appliances and other equipment.

S5 Box