Lead
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Lead

Lead is a very corrosion-resistant, dense, ductile, and malleable blue-gray metal that has been used for at least 5,000 years. Early uses of Lead included building materials, Pigments for glazing ceramics, and pipes for transporting water. The castles and cathedrals of Europe contain considerable quantities of Lead in decorative fixtures, roofs, pipes, and windows. Prior to the early 1900s, uses of Lead in the United States were primarily for ammunition, brass, burial vault liners, ceramic glazes, Leaded glass and crystal, paints or other protective Coatings, pewter, and water lines and pipes. With the growth in production of public and private motorized vehicles and the associated use of starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) Lead-acid storage batteries and terne metal for gas tanks after World War I, demand for Lead increased. Most of these uses for Lead continued to increase with the growth in population and the national economy. Contributing to the increase in demand for Lead was the use of Lead as radiation shielding in medical analysis and video display equipment and as an additive in gasoline.

 

Iran Lead, Lead

In Iran, Lead has known since 3rd millennium before Christ. Nowadays Iran has many large mines of Lead such as Angooran, Nakhlak, etc. So Iran is one of the biggest Lead Suppliers in Middle East. MGT Mineral Company has a great trading relationship with most of Lead mines, and can provide all necessary things for exporting their products.

 

Different types of Lead Ores

The abundance of Lead in the Earth's crust is estimated to be between 13 and 20 parts per million. It ranks in the upper third among the elements in terms of its abundance. The more important Lead minerals are:

  • Galena (PbS, 86% Pb)
  • Anglesite (PbSO4, 68% Pb)
  • Cerussite (PbCO3, 77% Pb)
Physical Properties of Lead
Chemical Formula Pb
Cleavage None
System Isometric
Color Lead gray, Gray white .
Density 11.3 g/cm3
Diaphaneity (Transparency) Opaque
Fracture Malleable - Deforms rather than breaking apart with a hammer
Tenacity Malleable
Habit Blocky - Crystal shape tends to be equant (e.g. Feldspars)
Hardness (Mohs) 2-2.5 - Gypsum-Finger Nail
Luminescence Non-fluorescent
Luster Metallic
Streak Lead gray
Magnetism Nonmagnetic

Lead Occurrence:

Although Lead is seldom found uncombined in nature, its compounds are widely distributed throughout the world, principally in the ores galena, cerussite, and anglesite. The ore is concentrated by the flotation process and is then refined by electrolysis or by smelting. About one third of the Lead used in the United States is so-called secondary Lead, i.e., Lead and Lead alloys reclaimed chiefly from automobile batteries.

 

Lead producer, Iran Lead producer

 

Lead Usages:

Prior to the early 1900s, Lead was used in the United States primarily in ammunition, burial vault liners, ceramic glazes, Leaded glass and crystal, paints or other protective Coatings, pewter, and water lines and pipes. Following World War I, the demand for Lead increased because of growth in the production of motorized vehicles, many of which use Lead-acid batteries to start their engines. The use of Lead as radiation shielding in medical analysis and video display equipment and as an additive in gasoline also contributed to an increase in the demand for Lead.

Battery: The principal consumption of Lead is for the Lead-Acid storage battery in which grid or plate is made of Lead or Lead with other metal more commonly with antimony.

Rolled Extrusions: Lead Sheet is used in the building industry for flashings or weathering to prevent water penetration & for roofing and cladding. By virtue of its resistance to chemical corrosion, Lead Sheet also finds use for the lining of chemical treatment baths, acid plants and storage vessels. The high density of Lead Sheet makes it a very effective material for sound insulation purpose. Lead clad steel has also found use in radiation shielding.

Pigments: Used extensively in paints, although recently the use of Lead in paints has been drastically curtailed to eliminate or reduce health hazards. White Lead, 2PbCO3 • Pb(OH)2, is the most extensively used Lead pigment. Other Lead pigments of importance are basic Lead sulfate and Lead chromates.

Cable Sheathing: Because of its high ductility, good extrusion ability, relatively low temperature & excellent proven corrosion resistance when in contact with a wide range of industrial and marine environments, soils and chemicals, Lead Alloys are used extensively as sheathing materials for high voltage power cables.

Ammunition: Use of ammunition with Lead Bullets, which are commonly used in sport shooting with small arms.

 

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